- (anthropology) the evolution of a single evolutionary stock into a number of different species. Source: Anthromorphemics
- (biology) The evolution from a relatively primitive and unspecialized type of organism to several divergent forms specialized to fit numerous distinct and diverse ways of life, as occurred in Darwin's finches or the marsupials of Australia. Source: Curtis, Helena. 1968. Biology. New York, NY. Worth Publishers
- (biotechnology) The evolution of new species or sub-species to fill unoccupied ecological niches.