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  • (environment) The sum total of all the gases surrounding the Earth, extending several hundred kilometers above the surface in a mechanical mixture of various gases in fluid-like motion. The permanent constituents are molecular nitrogen; 78.1%, molecular oxygen; 20.9%, argon; 0.934%, and approximately 0.036% carbon dioxide. Various other components exist in trace amounts. Not to be under emphasized, these trace components are where the interesting atmospheric chemistry occurs. The atmosphere can also be artificially divided into layers. Example: the troposphere (the layer closest to the earth) and the stratosphere (the layer above the troposphere). [Elements of Meteorology; Miller, Albert and Thompson, Jack; pp. 6-9;1970;Charles E Merrill; Ohio.] [ Climate Systems Modeling; Salby, Murry; Ed. Kevin E. Trenberth; pp. 53-115; 1992; Cambridge University Press; London.]
    Source: Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary
  • (geology)
  1. The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. The mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth, being held thereto by gravity. It consists by volume of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and minute quantities of helium, krypton, neon, and xenon. The atmosphere is so compressed by its own weight that half is within 5.5 km of the Earth's surface. AGI
  2. A unit of pressure. A normal atmosphere is equal to the pressure exerted by a vertical column of mercury 760 mm in height at 0 degrees C, and with gravity taken as 980.665 cm/s2 . It equals 14.66 psi (101 kPa). AGI
  3. In a furnace, the mixture of gases resulting from combustion. d. The kind of air prevailing in any place, as within a kiln during firing. Kinney
    Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms

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