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- In gas tubes, the bombardment of gas atoms by the electron stream which removes electrons from the gas atoms to form ions. The process increases conduction and reduces internal resistance.
- In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.
- Ionization is the gain or loss of electrons. The loss of electrons, which is the more common process in astrophysical environments, converts an atom into a positively charged ion, while the gain of electrons converts an atom into a negatively charged ion. Source: The University of Tennessee