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Combined display of all available logs of WebRef.org. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive).

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  • 16:37, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Food deficiency diseases (Created page with "Food deficiency diseases occur as a result of poor nutrition or lack of food intake. When the body does not get the nutrients that it needs, disease will occur.")
  • 16:36, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Food and Agricultural Organization (Created page with "The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) was founded in 1945 as a part of the United Nations with a goal to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, improve agri...")
  • 16:36, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Food aid (Created page with "Food aid is the provision of food commodities or the funds to purchase food commodities to a nation experiencing a crisis. This aid may be from other national governments or f...")
  • 16:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Food, Agriculture, Trade and Conservation Act (Created page with "The Food, Agriculture, Trade and Conservation Act (1990), also known as the 1990 Farm Bill, contained important changes in the areas of food safety, nutrition information, env...")
  • 16:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Food Additives Amendment (Created page with "The Food Additives Amendment was an amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938. This amendment regulated the use of additives such as salt, nitrate, organic acids an...")
  • 16:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Folkways (Created page with "The set of manners and customary acts that characterize everyday life in a social system.")
  • 16:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Finance (Created page with "Finance is the management of money, assets, banking, investments and credit.")
  • 16:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Field experiment (Created page with "A non-laboratory experiment.")
  • 16:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Feudalism (Created page with "The social system that characterized medieval - Europe and other preindustrial societies, based upon mutual obligation between nobility and serfs.")
  • 16:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Fertility rate (Created page with "Fertility rates are a measure of the average number of children in a group of women completing their child bearing years would have if they had had children throughout their p...")
  • 16:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Feminism (Created page with "A theoretical and ideological framework that directly opposes sexism by supporting gender equality. (See Liberal feminism; - Socialist feminism; - Radical feminism.)")
  • 16:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Femininity (Created page with "A set of beliefs describing the ideal female.")
  • 16:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Female infanticide (Created page with "Female infanticide is the practice of killing female infants. In some societies, population problems have restricted families to having only one child. In these societies, mal...")
  • 16:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs moved page Federal insecticide to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
  • 16:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Federal insecticide (Created page with "The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) was originally passed in 1947. It required all the Department of Agriculture to register all pesticides before t...")
  • 16:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Fashion (Created page with "A temporary standard of appearance or behavior considered to be socially acceptable or desirable.")
  • 16:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Farm mortgage (Created page with "A farm mortgage is a way for a farm owner to obtain a loan. The 'collateral' for the borrowed money is the farm and if the loan is not paid back, the borrower had the right to...")
  • 16:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Farm machines (Created page with "Farm machines are mechanical equipment that are used for agricultural production. Over the years, technological advancement has resulted in changes in farm machinery. Farm mac...")
  • 16:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Farm (Created page with "A farm is an area of land and its facilities that are maintained and utilized for agricultural purposes.")
  • 16:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Famine (Created page with "Famine is an extreme shortage or scarcity of food supplies.")
  • 16:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Family planning (Created page with "Family planning is the act of planning the number of children that a couple or a woman will have. This can be regulated with the use of birth control methods. During the late...")
  • 16:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Family disorganization (Created page with "The result of unoccupied statuses or inadequately performed roles within a family.")
  • 16:29, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page False consciousness (Created page with "Any belief, idea, ideology, etc., that interferes with an exploited and oppressed person or group being able to perceive the objective nature and source of their oppression.")
  • 16:28, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Fair Packaging & Labeling Act (Created page with "The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act was passed in 1966 and requires all consumer products to have labels that are true and informative. The FDA enforces these provisions on fo...")
  • 16:28, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Fad (Created page with "A short-lived standard of appearance or behavior marked by great enthusiasm among its followers.")
  • 15:55, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Extrinsic reward (Created page with "A reward given to someone by someone else.")
  • 15:55, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Extrinsic (Created page with "Extrinsic factors arise from the environment.")
  • 15:55, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Extrapolation (Created page with "An estimate of future conditions based on the assumption that "current trends will continue.".")
  • 15:54, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page External causes (Created page with "In social attribution, aspects of people's social situations that are used to explain their behavior.")
  • 15:54, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Extended family (Created page with "A family that includes a nuclear family plus additional relatives such as grandparents, aunts, or cousins.")
  • 15:54, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Expulsion (Created page with "A form of social oppression in which minorities are forced to leave their communities or societies.")
  • 15:54, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Expressive leader (Created page with "A leader who focuses on maintaining harmony among members.")
  • 15:53, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Expressive collective behavior (Created page with "Crowd or mass behavior that focuses on the expression of feelings toward some common object or event.")
  • 15:53, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Expressive action (Created page with ""[A]ction that is undertaken for the sake of the interaction itself (e.g., sharing an emotional problem, exchanging personal experiences" (p. 204). Source: Beggs, Jo...")
  • 15:52, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Experiment (Created page with "A research design in which similar groups of subjects are exposed to conditions that differ in only one respect (the independent variable) in order to establish cause-and-effe...")
  • 15:51, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Exchange value (Created page with "The attribution of value to goods or services based upon how much can be gotten for them in exchange for other goods and services.")
  • 15:51, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Exchange theory (Created page with "An approach to social interaction that focuses on how people exchange one thing for another in social relationships.")
  • 15:51, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Evolutionism (Created page with "A set of theories or a theoretical school in sociology based upon the assumption that human societies tend to develop into higher and higher forms. The history of any society...")
  • 15:50, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Evolutionary theories of social change (Created page with "Theories that argue that all societies develop along predetermined paths that take them from inferior to superior forms, from simple to complex, and from "primitive"...")
  • 15:50, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ethnomethodology (Created page with "The study of the unspoken rules and meanings through which people define and sustain a social situation.")
  • 15:48, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ethnicism (Created page with "Prejudice based on ethnicity.")
  • 15:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ethnic groups (Created page with "A social group that has a common cultural tradition, common history, and common sense of identity and exists as a subgroup in a larger society. The members of an ethnic group...")
  • 15:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ethnic group (Created page with "A set of people who identify with a common cultural heritage.")
  • 15:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ethicalist religion (Created page with "A religion that focuses more on sets of abstract ideals than on supernatural powers vested in gods, objects, or animals.")
  • 15:46, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Epidemic disease (Created page with "A disease not normally found in a population, which spreads rapidly.")
  • 15:46, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Environmentalism (Created page with "Environmentalism is an interest in or the study of the environment, in order to protect it from damage by human activities.")
  • 15:45, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Environmental degradation (Created page with "Environmental degradation is the reduction or deterioration of environmental resources.")
  • 15:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Engineering (Created page with "Engineering is the application of science to practical ends such as the design, manufacture and operation of structures.")
  • 15:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Energy Assistance (Created page with "These programs can provide low-income elderly homeowners and renters with funds to help pay home utility and heating costs. Eligibility requirements may vary from state to state.")
  • 15:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Endogamy (Created page with "The practice of requiring people to wed someone belonging to their own social group or community.")
  • 15:43, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Endemic disease (Created page with "A disease normally found in a population.")
  • 15:43, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Empirical studies (Created page with "Sociological work based on "concrete" experience, observation, or experimentation with actual sociological events. Unfortunately, empirical has become confused with...")
  • 15:43, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Eminent domain (Created page with "The Right of Eminent Domain is the right to take private property and use it for the public. In this event, the owner of the land must be fairly compensated for the property....")
  • 15:43, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Emigrant (Created page with "Someone who moves out of a territory.")
  • 15:42, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Emergent norm theory (Created page with "A theory of collective behavior that tries to explain how patterns of expectation and interaction emerge in crowds that involve no prior planning.")
  • 15:40, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Elites (Created page with "Those individuals and groups that are ranked toward the upper levels in a stratification hierarchy. They usually enjoy greater power, influence, mobility, status, and prestige...")
  • 15:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Elder Abuse Prevention Programs (Created page with "Allegations of abuse, neglect and exploitation of senior citizens are investigated by highly trained protective service specialists. Intervention is provided in instances of s...")
  • 15:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Elder Abuse (Created page with "Elder abuse is a term referring to any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable adu...")
  • 15:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ehrlich, Paul (Created page with "Dr. Paul Ehrlich is a researcher and author in the subject of population, resources and the environment. He is the author of many books including The Population Bomb (1968).")
  • 15:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Egalitarian family (Created page with "A family in which authority is evenly divided between husbands and wives.")
  • 15:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Egalitarian ethic (Created page with "Wanting an equal share of the established pie. The belief, ideology, and plan(s) of action that wish to promote and bring about social reform to the degree that there is equal...")
  • 15:22, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Egalitarian (Created page with "The position that there should be structurally a degree of equality in reference to access to control, influence, and direction over events that affect one's life. There shoul...")
  • 15:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Education (Created page with "The systematic formal transmission of skills, knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms.")
  • 15:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Economics (Created page with "Economics is the social science that deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goos and services.")
  • 15:20, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Economic institutions (Created page with "Enduring arrangements of cultural ideas and social relationships through which goods and services are produced and distributed in societies.")
  • 15:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ecological succession (Created page with "The process through which ecosystems change.")
  • 15:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ecclesia (Created page with "The most powerful of religious institutions, including most members of a society, dominated by a formal and bureaucratic clergy, governed by legal-rational and traditional aut...")
  • 13:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Dyad (Created page with "A pair of social actors.")
  • 13:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Dual economy (Created page with "An economy that is part monopolistic and part competitive.")
  • 13:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Dramaturgy (Created page with "The study of social interaction as theater in which actors play roles before audiences.")
  • 13:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Doctrine of riparian rights (Created page with "The Doctrine of Riparian Rights define the rights relating to the bank of a watercourse which says that a landowner adjacent to a stream has the right to the water in that str...")
  • 13:15, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Doctrine of appropriation (Created page with "The Doctrine of Appropriation states that the rights to water are aquired when the water is diverted from its natural course for beneficial use. The right that is acquired fir...")
  • 13:15, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Divorced family (Created page with "A family structure in which the parents are divorced and yet are still part of an ongoing family system.")
  • 13:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Discrimination (Created page with "Positive or negative behavior based on stereotyped beliefs about the occupants of a status.")
  • 13:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Discovery (Created page with "An instance of finding out about something that already exists.")
  • 13:13, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Dionysian (Created page with "One of Ruth Benedict's polar types. Dionysian culture is typified by members manifesting belief that excess, frenzy, and disruptive psychological states may well bring insight...")
  • 13:12, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Differential association (Created page with "A theory of deviance that argues that in the socialization process people vary in the norms and values they feel allegiance to because they are not equally exposed to the same...")
  • 13:12, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Dialectics (Created page with "A recent summary of the reemergence of the dialectic in sociology is to be found in Louis Schneider. The seven meaning-clusters for the term are as follows: * A discrepancy be...")
  • 13:10, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Deviance (Created page with "Generally, deviance is nonconformity to social norms. However, often deviance is simply conformity to the norms or standards of a subgroup or subculture rather than those of t...")
  • 13:10, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Developed and developing countries (Created page with "Developed countries are those in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan with highly industrialized economies, who have highly productive agriculture and...")
  • 13:10, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Destratification (Created page with "Efforts at destroying the inequality of the social stratification system in society and bringing that society to a condition of socially structured equality and classlessness....")
  • 13:06, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Denomination (Created page with "The third most powerful type of religious institution, with a membership generally dominated by a single social class, a formal but not bureaucratic role structure, a trained...")
  • 13:04, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Democracy (Created page with "A social system in which power is evenly distributed.")
  • 13:04, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Degradation ceremony (Created page with "An important part of the socialization process in total institutions, in which inmates are subjected to humiliation and labeled as inferior.")
  • 13:04, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Definition of the situation (Created page with "The determination of which statuses and roles are relevant in a social situation.")
  • 13:03, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Decision theory (Created page with "A theoretical perspective that views collective behavior--and human behavior in general-as the result of rational attempts to solve problems.")
  • 13:03, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Death rate (Created page with "The number of people who die in a given year for every thousand people in a population.")
  • 13:03, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page De minimus risk (Created page with "De minimus risk is the philosophy that the government takes when the probability that a product or practice is slightly detrimental to human welfare. If the chance is very sma...")
  • 13:03, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page De jure segregation (Created page with "Segregation that is required by law.")
  • 13:02, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page De facto segregation (Created page with "Segregation that is an unintended consequence of social or ecological arrangements.")
  • 11:57, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs moved page The Bureaucratic Society of Controlled Consumption to Bureaucratic Society of Controlled Consumption (remove leading article)
  • 11:51, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cyclical theory of social change (Created page with "The theory that the development of societies occurs in cycles (rather than a straight line) that parallel the lives of individuals. - Societies are born, mature, age, and die.")
  • 11:51, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Culture lag (Created page with "An instance in which technological change occurs before cultural norms and values can be introduced to govern its use.")
  • 11:49, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cultural system (Created page with "A functional theoretical model of culture seen as a system of interrelated parts, and concerned with the analysis of the functional interaction of the parts within the total s...")
  • 11:49, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cultural relativity (Created page with "The idea that a culture can only be truly evaluated by its own standards and not by any common criteria. Thus, cultural relativism is a liberal and "liberalizing" co...")
  • 11:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cult (Created page with "A relatively temporary religious group whose members are generally recruited among poor people in a state of emotional crisis, which has an informal, loosely organized structu...")
  • 11:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crude death rate (Created page with "The crude death rate is the number of deaths in a given population during a given time period (such as January 1 - December 31) divided by the total population and multiplied...")
  • 11:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crude birth rate (Created page with "The crude birth rate is the number of births in a given population during a given time period (such as January 1 - December 31) divided by the total population and multiplied...")
  • 11:47, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crowd (Created page with "A relatively temporary collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time in close enough proximity to one another so that they can interact with and be...")
  • 11:46, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cross-cultural method (Created page with "Research that tries to identify the origins of cultural ideas, social structures, or ecological arrangements by comparing different societies.")
  • 11:46, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crop lien system of credit (Created page with "The crop lien system allowed farmers to receive commodities such as food, supplies, seeds, etc. on loan (or credit) and pay this debt back after their crop was harvested and s...")
  • 11:45, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Critical sociology (Created page with "Critical sociologists (basically European in origin), like American radical sociologists, oppose what they feel are the dehumanizing aspects of capitalist institutions and als...")
  • 11:45, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Criminal law (Created page with "A law that links specific acts with punishments.")
  • 11:45, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Criminal justice system (Created page with "A set of institutions including police, courts, and prisons.")
  • 11:45, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crime rate (Created page with "The number of crimes per year per thousand people in a population.")
  • 11:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Crime (Created page with "Acts that violate laws regarded as relatively serious.")
  • 11:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Coup d'etat (Created page with "An attempt to illegally replace one government with another, often through the use of force.")
  • 11:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Counterrevolution (Created page with "A movement to stop social change. Especially favored by elites who have a vested interest in the status quo, e.g., Franco in Spain during the 1930s.")
  • 11:44, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Correlation (Created page with "A measure of association that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables.")
  • 11:43, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cornucopian thesis (Created page with "The Cornucopian Thesis theorizes that growth is limited only when science and technology do not make any further advances. However, there is no reason why these advances shoul...")
  • 11:42, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Core society (Created page with "In world-system theory, a society that is in an economically dominant position.")
  • 11:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Co-opted (Created page with "The process granting certain individuals or groups that are threatening or disruptive to the dominant group in power concessions or apparent concessions in the hope that such...")
  • 11:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Convergence theory (Created page with "Le Bon's belief that crowds consist of like-minded people who assemble in one place.")
  • 11:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Conventional collective behavior (Created page with "Crowd or mass behavior that involves a specific common purpose such as watching a parade.")
  • 11:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Control variable (Created page with "A variable introduced into a statistical analysis to see if a statistical relationship holds among people who are alike on a particular characteristic.")
  • 11:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Control group (Created page with "A group of people in an experiment who are not exposed to the experimental stimulus under study.")
  • 11:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Contradiction (Created page with "As seen by Karl Marx, stress in a society caused by elites who want their cake, and gobble it, too. For example: an indefinite increase of production that depletes finite quan...")
  • 11:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Contraceptives (Created page with "Contraceptives are birth control devices or products that allow prevention of pregnancy. Advancements in this type of development allowed families to control the number of chi...")
  • 11:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Content analysis (Created page with "An empirical examination of the frequency of a particular social characteristic or feature of a society. This can also be done on books, magazines, journal articles, newspaper...")
  • 11:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Contagion (Created page with "In Le Bon's theory of collective behavior, the process through which people uncritically copy one an other's behavior, setting off a chain reaction.")
  • 11:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Construct (Created page with "A devised concept, a statement, or set of statements that helps to logically explain why there is variation in the results of one's measuring instrument from the expected or u...")
  • 11:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Constant (Created page with "A behavior or characteristic that does not vary from one observation to another.")
  • 11:29, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Conspicuous consumption (Created page with "Consumption intended to affirm or enhance an individual's prestige.")
  • 11:29, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Consensus (Created page with "A social process within which individuals or groups previously in conflict come to some agreement in regard to the rules, content, intentions, and form of future interactions...")
  • 11:29, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Consciousness-raising (Created page with "Overcoming false consciousness. The process by which an individual or group comes to be aware of and understand (via political and critical structural sociological analyses) t...")
  • 11:29, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Congregate Meals (Created page with "These meal programs provide older individuals with free or low cost , nutritionally sound meals served five days a week in easily accessible locations. Besides promoting bette...")
  • 11:28, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Conformity (Created page with "Behavior or appearance consistent with norms.")
  • 11:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Conflict perspective (Created page with "A theoretical perspective that focuses on the struggle among different social groups over scarce rewards.")
  • 11:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Conflict methodology (Created page with "A methodology developed to accompany conflict theory (thus, establishing a complete conflict paradigm in sociology) in its opposition to functional theory and "consensus...")
  • 11:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Concentric zone theory (Created page with "A theory of urban land use according to which cities develop in rings around a core of business activity; outer rings are higher in class than inner rings.")
  • 11:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Compound status (Created page with "A status consisting of one or more statuses joined together as one--as "policewoman" joins occupation with gender.")
  • 11:26, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Compound family (Created page with "A nuclear family in which children are directly related to only one of the parents.")
  • 11:25, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Community(s) of therapy (Created page with "Ron E. Roberts' notion. A kind of alternative or intentional community, a communal organization that arises during great periods of stress and upheaval in society and is desig...")
  • 11:25, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Community(s) of mobilization (Created page with "Ron E. Roberts' conceptualization of a certain kind of communal society or communal organization. "Communities of mobilization" are those communal organizations serv...")
  • 11:24, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Communism (Created page with "An economic system in which the means of production are communally owned and there is no state.")
  • 11:24, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Communications (Created page with "Communications is the transfer of information through various technologies including written, audio, video and the network that transmits this information.")
  • 11:24, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Communication structure (Created page with "The pattern of frequency and duration of interaction among participants in a social system.")
  • 11:23, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Communal economy (Created page with "An economy based. on collective ownership of means of production, primary ties, and sharing.")
  • 11:23, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Commons (Created page with ""Commons" was the was the term used to describe public land in a village before the age of enclosure. Everyone in the village had equal rights to this land.")
  • 11:23, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Commodity value (Created page with "Commodity value is the value of the land representing its best use in a market place reflecting all market forces.")
  • 11:22, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Commodity (Created page with "An exchangeable or movable set of goods. According to Marx, under capitalism people have become commodities or exchangeable "things."")
  • 11:22, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Color-caste system (Created page with "Race relations governed by segregation, prohibition of interracial marriage, and various other forms of discrimination by color distinctions.")
  • 11:22, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Colonialism (Created page with "The relationship between countries in which one dominates the other and exploits its natural and human resources.")
  • 11:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Collectivity (Created page with "A set of people who share a culture and think of themselves as a unit, but generally do not interact with one another.")
  • 11:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Collective representations (Created page with "From Emile Durkheim's sociology. It refers to a symbol having common-shared meaning (intellectual and emotional) to members of a social group or society. Collective representa...")
  • 11:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Collective conscience (Created page with "Durkheim's term for the moral consensus that is violated by deviant acts.")
  • 11:20, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Collective behavior (Created page with "The relatively unstructured behavior of people in crowds and masses.")
  • 11:20, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Collective (Created page with "Comprised of two or more individuals joined together by their shared traditions or because of their common interests and common perspectives. They possess awareness of a certa...")
  • 11:20, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cohort effect (Created page with "Effects on people's lives that arise from the characteristics of the historical periods during which they experienced stages of life such as childhood or middle age.")
  • 11:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cognitive development perspective (Created page with "A theoretical perspective on socialization that focuses on the growth of mental abilities to make increasingly complex judgments about ourselves as well as our physical and so...")
  • 11:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Coercive power (Created page with "Power that lacks the social legitimacy of authority and is based on fear and the use of force.")
  • 11:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Coalition (Created page with "A subgroup whose members join forces in order to increase their control over group process.")
  • 11:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Classical social movement theory (Created page with "A theory (including several specific approaches) based on the following general model: some kind of strain or disturbance in the social environment (such as an economic depres...")
  • 11:18, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Class (social class) (Created page with "A large category or group of people within a system of social stratification who have a similar socioeconomic status in relation to other socioeconomic segments of the society...")
  • 11:18, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Class consciousness (Created page with "The most articulate spokesperson on the subject of class consciousness in American sociology has been C. Wright Mills. Mills specifies three components of class consciousness:...")
  • 11:18, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Class conflict (Created page with "Also referred to as class struggle. Class conflict is essentially the inevitable struggle (due to social stratification) between social classes or parts of them having conflic...")
  • 11:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Civil society (Created page with "As distinguished by Hegel, the civil society is made up of families, the feudal estates, and other classlike groupings.")
  • 11:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Civil religion (Created page with "A set of cultural ideas, symbols, and practices oriented to the direct worship of a society by its members.")
  • 11:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Civil law (Created page with "A norm that regulates social relationships in order to prevent or undo the negative effects of particular acts.")
  • 11:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Civil disobedience (Created page with "The deliberate and open violation of a norm for the purpose of changing it.")
  • 11:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Circular reaction (Created page with "In Blumer's theory of collective behavior, the belief that people copy one another and amplify their emotional state in the process.")
  • 11:16, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Church (Created page with "The second most powerful religious institution, with a broad membership that includes a majority of the members of a society, a formally trained and bureaucratic clergy, gover...")
  • 11:15, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Child survival rates (Created page with "A survival rate is the proportion of persons in a particular age group (e.g., age 15 to 19) who are still alive at the end of a specified time period (e.g., after a 5 year int...")
  • 11:15, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Chore Service (Created page with "Chore service is available to persons who are physically unable to perform tasks, such as heavy cleaning, minor repair or yard work, and unable to secure assistance from famil...")
  • 11:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Chemical revolution (Created page with "The chemical revolution refers to the onset of the use of chemicals in agriculture. This use meant less labor costs in the overall production process.")
  • 11:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Cheerful robots (Created page with "C. Wright Mills' fear that contemporary men and women are becoming increasingly manipulated by contemporary social structures. What is even scarier to Mills is that these new...")
  • 11:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Charismatic authority (Created page with "Authority based on the belief that a particular individual possesses special abilities or characteristics.")
  • 11:13, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Charismatic (Created page with "Refers to a unique, subtle, nonrational, extraordinary quality that people seem to perceive in and/or attribute to an individual to the extent that that individual seems to in...")
  • 11:13, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Catholic Workers (Created page with "The nexus of Catholic radicalism in the United States. The movement began in 1932 when Dorothy Day, an ex-communist turned Catholic, met a French emigre who had come to Americ...")
  • 11:12, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Casual collective behavior (Created page with "Crowd or mass behavior that involves no common goal or purpose around which people interact.")
  • 11:12, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Caste (Created page with "A social category in a stratification system in which membership depends on ascribed statuses and cannot be changed after birth.")
  • 11:12, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Case study (Created page with "A research design that focuses on a single example rather than a representative sample.")
  • 11:11, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Caregiver (Created page with "A generic term referring to a person, either paid or voluntary, who helps an older person with the activities of daily living, health care, financial matters, guidance, compan...")
  • 11:10, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Care or Case Management (Created page with "Case managers work with family members and older adults to assess, arrange and evaluate supportive efforts of seniors and their families to remain independent.")
  • 11:10, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Capitalist (Created page with "A person who owns or controls capital.")
  • 11:09, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Capitalism (Created page with ""The term capitalism denotes and economic system in which the greater proportion of economic life, particularly ownership of and investment in production goods, is carrie...")
  • 11:05, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bureaucratization (Created page with "The process by which formal social organizations take on the characteristics of a bureaucracy. Central to this process is the formalization, standardization, and impersonaliza...")
  • 11:05, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page The Bureaucratic Society of Controlled Consumption (Created page with "The French Sociologist Henri Lefebvre's expression in his Everyday Life in the Modern World for the idea that the bureaucratic organization of modern industrial societies is i...")
  • 11:04, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bureaucratic collectivism (Created page with "A new particularly modern form of class society (some similarities to state capitalism) in which the state owns the means of production and "the elite party bureaucracy o...")
  • 11:04, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bureaucracy (Created page with "A complex set of formal, secondary relationships in which # entry into statuses is controlled by rigid norms; # people specialize in narrowly-defined tasks; # roles are rig...")
  • 11:03, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bubonic plague (Created page with "The plague appeared in three forms: bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic. These infections were caused by an organism (bacillus) which was present primarily in rats (but occurred...")
  • 11:02, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bourgeoisie (Created page with "The owners of the means of production and distribution in capitalist societies. Marx saw the bourgeoisie as the class in control of capitalist society largely through the oppr...")
  • 11:02, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Boundary (Created page with "The specification of who may occupy a particular status. - The clarity of boundaries describes how easily people can tell who occupies a status. - The openness of boundaries r...")
  • 11:02, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bonanza farms (Created page with "Bonanza farms were the large farms that were usually very profitable. These farms had the need to hire additional wage labor for their farms.")
  • 11:01, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Blue-collar (Created page with "Referring to occupations that primarily involve manual work.")
  • 11:01, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Black death (Created page with "The Black Death was an epidemic outbreak of the plague that began in the Gobi Desert in the 1320s. During just 2 years in the 1300s, over 20 million deaths occurred. The epide...")
  • 11:00, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Birth rate (Created page with "The number of children born each year for every thousand members of a population.")
  • 11:00, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Birth cohort (Created page with "People who share the same period of birth.")
  • 11:00, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Biological determinism (Created page with "The belief that individual differences are biologically caused and, therefore, unchangeable.")
  • 11:00, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Bilocal marriage (Created page with "A kinship system in which married couples must live near or in the household of the wife's mother or the husband's father.")
  • 10:59, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Beliefs (Created page with "Statements about what is real.")
  • 10:59, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Behavioral approach (Created page with "A theoretical approach to learning and behavior that focuses on the importance of reward, punishment, and conditioning.")
  • 10:58, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Balance theory (Created page with "A theoretical perspective on social interaction that suggests that people organize their perceptions of people and objects into units and strive for some consistency in the po...")
  • 10:58, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Backstage (Created page with "In the dramaturgical approach, the place where players are freed from the requirements of a particular role.")
  • 10:56, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Baby bust (Created page with "'Baby Bust' is the term applied to the period of time from 1965 - 1976. Most births that occurred were to members of the baby boom generation.")
  • 10:56, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Baby boom (Created page with "'Baby Boom' is the term applied to the period of time from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1964 when there was a boom in the birth rate. This period of time saw over 77 millio...")
  • 10:40, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Avant garde (Created page with "Refers to those individuals and groups that engage in experimental and unorthodox activities, interests, behaviors, and creations. They are usually seen as advanced (which is...")
  • 10:40, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Automation (Created page with "Machines that supervise and control other machines. The system of complex mechanization that utilizes cybernated self-correcting machines that produce products and perform tas...")
  • 10:40, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Autoeroticism (Created page with "Sexual behavior(s) (usually masturbatory) that are initiated by an individual without the presence or need for other people. However, the individual carries along with them, i...")
  • 10:40, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Autocracy (Created page with "A state ruled by a single person.")
  • 10:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Authority (Created page with "Power assigned according to norms and generally accepted as legitimate by those over whom it is exercised.")
  • 10:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Authoritarianism (Created page with "The degree to which the state controls the lives of its citizens.")
  • 10:39, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Authoritarian power structure (Created page with "A power structure in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relative few.")
  • 10:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Authentic act (Created page with "A phrase frequently found in existential philosophy and literature to depict the individual human act replete with meaning, commitment, and genuineness.")
  • 10:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Autarky (Created page with "Generally, a condition of self-sufficiency. Specifically, a national policy of economic independence.")
  • 10:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Audience segregation (Created page with "In the dramaturgical approach to interaction, the effort by social actors to keep their "frontstage" and "backstage" selves separate.")
  • 10:38, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Attitudes (Created page with "Positive or negative evaluations of people, objects, or situations that often predispose people to feel and behave positively or negatively toward them.")
  • 10:37, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Assisted Technology (Created page with "Assistive technology is any service or tool that helps the elderly or disabled do the activities they have always done but must now do differently. These tools are also someti...")
  • 10:37, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Assisted Living Facilities (Created page with "A facility that provides a combination of housing and personalized health care in a professionally managed group-setting designed to respond to the individual needs of persons...")
  • 10:36, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Asceticism (Created page with "As used by Max Weber, the belief that hard work and a no-nonsense puritan ethic are signs of one's goodness and even salvation.")
  • 10:36, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Aristocracy (Created page with "The old feudal elite who gained power and wealth through family ties and the sanction of the church. The aristocracy was replaced by the new people of power - the bourgeoisie.")
  • 10:36, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Area Agency on Aging (Created page with "Under the Older Americans Act, the Administration on Aging distributes funds for various aging programs through state agencies on aging with in turn fund local area agencies o...")
  • 10:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Approach-avoidance conflict (Created page with "Occurs when an individual is faced with two or more goals of equal strength. An example of this would be a situation in which a child is required to perform an unpleasant task...")
  • 10:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Applied sciences (Created page with "The application of known tools, devices, methods, findings, techniques, principles, insights, concepts, etc., to the analysis, understanding, and solution of practical problem...")
  • 10:35, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Apollonian (Created page with "Refers to one of Ruth Benedict's polar types in her comparative ethnology of North American indigenous peoples. Apollonian culture is typified by members manifesting behaviors...")
  • 10:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Apartheid (Created page with "South Africa's former policy of racial discrimination and segregation.")
  • 10:34, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anticipatory socialization (Created page with "The process of learning how to perform a role attached to a status we do not yet occupy.")
  • 10:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anorexia nervosa (Created page with "a serious illness often resulting in dangerous weight loss, in which a person, esp. a girl or woman, does not eat, or eats too little, because they fear fatness")
  • 10:33, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anomie (Created page with "A condition characterized by the absence or confusion of social norms or values in a society or group. According to Martindale, anomie is the "strict counterpart of the i...")
  • 10:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anomalies (Created page with "Scientific findings that either contradict or cannot be explained by a paradigm.")
  • 10:32, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Androgyny (Created page with "The combining of masculine and feminine personality traits in a single individual.")
  • 10:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Androcracy (Created page with "A social system organized around the principle of male dominance.")
  • 10:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ancestor worship (Created page with "The religious worship of ancestors based on the belief that they possess supernatural power.")
  • 10:31, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anarchistic (Created page with "The position that any organized form of control (usually governmental) is unnecessary and undesirable. With the abolition of the organized forms of control, i.e., the state, i...")
  • 10:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Anabaptists (Created page with "Various Protestant sects in Europe about 1520 that denied the validity of infant baptism, baptized believers only, demanded believers to marry only other believers thus nullif...")
  • 10:30, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Amalgamation (Created page with "The process by which two or more previous racial, ethnic, or nationality identified groups intermarry and produce offspring that are of new racial stock.")
  • 10:28, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Altruistic love (Created page with "Placing the other's happiness before one's own, learning to care for the other more than one's self, sacrifice, etc.")
  • 10:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Alternative communities (Created page with "A term used to suggest "alternative" institutional forms or living arrangements to the "established" forms, institutions, or life styles. The term is most...")
  • 10:27, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Aligning action (Created page with "An action that signals an actor's acceptance of a new definition of the situation.")
  • 10:26, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Agricultural revolution (Created page with "An agricultural revolution is brought about whenever there are significant discoveries, technologies or inventions that change agricultural production. Three types of agricul...")
  • 10:25, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Agrarian society (Created page with "A society in which agriculture is the primary means of subsistence.")
  • 10:25, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Aggregate (Created page with "A number of individuals that have temporary physical proximity and no lasting pattern of interrelations or organization. Such a group will disperse after the reason that attra...")
  • 10:25, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Ageism (Created page with "Similar to the dynamics of racism and sexism. It is a set of attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about the aging process and of people who have been arbitrarily defined as no...")
  • 10:24, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Age structure (Created page with "The relative number of people of each age in a population.")
  • 10:24, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Age/sex structure (Created page with "The age/sex structure is also called the population pyramid. This structure or pyramid is a graphic way to show the age and sex composition of a population. The sum of all age...")
  • 10:23, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Affluent society (Created page with "An account of American society that emphasizes the apparent wealth and material fascination and wellbeing of a large segment of the population, namely the middle-classes and a...")
  • 10:23, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Affluent alienation (Created page with "The dissatisfaction that comes not from economic impoverishment, but from the fact that individuals sometimes give up their personalities, integrity, and intellect doing burea...")
  • 10:21, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Adult Day Care (Created page with "Adult Day Care Centers offer social, recreational and health-related services to individuals in a protective setting who cannot be left alone during the day because of health...")
  • 10:20, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Administration on Aging (Created page with "The Administration on Aging (AoA), an agency in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is the official Federal agency dedicated to policy development, planning and t...")
  • 10:19, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) (Created page with "Activities usually performed for oneself in the course of a normal day including bathing, dressing, grooming, eating, walking, using the telephone, taking medications, and oth...")
  • 10:18, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Acting collective behavior (Created page with "Crowd or mass behavior oriented to specific goals.")
  • 10:18, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Abuse (Created page with "causing harm or injury to one's self or others; abuse may be physical, psychological, or sexual, including the misuse of drugs or alcohol.")
  • 10:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Absolute deprivation (Created page with "A lack of basic necessities relative to a fixed standard such as the amount of food necessary for survival.")
  • 10:17, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Absentee landlord (Created page with "An absentee landlord is a property owner who does not live on his property and leaves the management of the property to the tenant who lives there.")
  • 10:14, 5 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Aberrant behavior (Created page with "Behavior that violates norms in secret and for personal gain.")
  • 16:48, 4 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page Category:Sociology (Created page with " aberrant behavior absentee landlord absolute deprivation abuse achieved status acting collective behavior Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) Administration on Aging The...")
  • 11:31, 4 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page WebRef.org (Created page with "*Physical Sciences **Acoustics **Chemistry **Electronics **:Categor...")
  • 11:31, 4 March 2020 Webref talk contribs created page MediaWiki:Mainpage (Created page with "WebRef.org")
  • 10:32, 22 October 2019 Webref talk contribs moved page Option writer, futures to Option writer
  • 13:37, 21 October 2019 Webref talk contribs moved page Watershed and Flood Prevention Act of 1954 to Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954
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