Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended by section 1302 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, required the U.S. Trade Representative, within 30 days following the National Trade Estimates (foreign trade barriers) Report to Congress in 1989 and 1990, to identify U.S. trade liberalization priorities. This identification included priority trade barriers as well as priority countries and estimates of the amount by which U.S. exports would be increased if the barriers did not exist. USTR was required to initiated (regular) section 301 investigations on all priority practices within 21 days after submitting the report to the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees. USTR was required to negotiate agreements which provided for the elimination of, or compensation for, the priority trade barriers within 3 years after the initiation of the investigation. This authority expired in 1990. However, since 1994, Super 301 has been implemented by USTR under an executive order of the President. Legislation introduced in the 106th Congress (S. 19 and S. 101) would establish a super 301 for agriculture.
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