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Water consists of two hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom (H2O). Water covers three-fourths of the Earth's surface, 60-70% of the world's weight, regenerates and redistributes through evaporation and other atmospheric processes. Water is involved in electrical charge separation because it has two types and positions of atoms giving it a net dipole movement. Water vapor also absorbs 17% of solar radiation in the troposphere, thus making it one of the two principal greenhouse gases. Of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth's surface a little more than half goes into latent heat, which is heat absorbed by water because of its transformation from a liquid to a gas. When these molecules condense back into a liquid, usually higher in the atmosphere, they released that energy back into the atmosphere as local warming.

Source: Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary

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