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Work/training programs have two meanings in the food stamp program: (1) most able-bodied unemployed or underemployed (less than 30 hours a week) adults not caring for very young children must register for work and, if assigned, participate in work/training programs that can include a wide variety of activities such as supervised job search or job search training, a "workfare" program (where they work off the value of their benefit in public service jobs), work experience program or programs involving on-the-job training, education programs to improve basic skills; and (2) in order to maintain eligibility beyond 3 months, able-bodied adult recipients between age 18 and 50 and without dependents must, if not working at least 20 hours a week, participate in and comply with a much narrower range of work/training activities, including only workfare programs, programs under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) or the Trade Adjustment Assistance Act, and employment and training programs operated by states and political subdivisions that meet state-set standards. Work/training activities covered by the first (broader) definition are often referred to as food stamp program "employment and training" ("E and T") programs.

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