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  1. Any of a group of solid and semi-solid hydrocarbons that can be converted into liquid form by heating. Bitumens can be refined to produce such commercial products as gasoline, fuel oil, and asphalt.Source: Leet, L. Don. 1982. Physical Geology, 6th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
  2. A general name for various solid and semisolid hydrocarbons. In 1912, the term was used by the American Society for Testing and Materials to include all those hydrocarbons that are soluble in carbon disulfide, whether gases, easily mobile liquids, viscous liquids, or solids.
  3. A generic term applied to natural flammable substances of variable color, hardness, and volatility, composed principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies. Bitumens are sometimes associated with mineral matter, the nonmineral constituents being fusible and largely soluble in carbon disulfide, yielding water-insoluble sulfonation products. Petroleums, asphalts, natural mineral waxes, and asphaltites are all considered bitumens. AGI

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